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Glossary of Terms

EPDM – ASTM– EPDM stands for ethylene propylene diene monomer, which is a bit of a mouthful, so it’s commonly shortened to EPDM or EPDM rubber. EPDM gets its name from the chemicals (monomers) that are mixed together in various proportions to form it. These are ethylene, propylene and diene.


EPM – ASTM- Ethylene propylene rubber (EPR, sometimes called EPM referring to an ASTM standard) is a type of synthetic elastomer that is closely related to EPDM rubber.


EBONITE – Ebonite is a brand name for a material generically known as hard rubber, and is obtained by vulcanizing natural rubber for prolonged periods. Ebonite may contain from 25% to 80% sulfur and linseed oil. Its name comes from its intended use as an artificial substitute for ebony wood.

Ebonite is blackish brown and firm, but its main raw material is rubber. By mixing and heating rubber and sulfur, they combine and become low-elastic and very firm vulcanized rubber with an elongation percentage of approximately 3%. … The name “ebonite” comes from the meaning “ebony.”


ELASTIC LIMIT – A material’s elastic limit is the greatest stress that can be applied to it without causing plastic (permanent) deformation. When a material is stressed to a point below its elastic limit, it will return to its original length once the stress is removed.

This relation is defined by the elastic modulus (E) such as: σel=E*ε. In this framework the proportional limit σο (until which the relation σel=E*ε, holds) differs from the yielding point σy (which is the onset of plastic deformations), in general.


ELASTICITY – In the science of physics, elasticity is the ability of a deformable body (e.g., steel, aluminum, rubber, wood, crystals, etc.) to resist a distorting effect and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. Solid bodies will deform when satisfying forces are applied to them.

Elasticity, ability of a deformed material body to return to its original shape and size when the forces causing the deformation are removed. A body with this ability is said to behave (or respond) elastically. Elasticity. Quick Facts. key people.


ELASTOMER – An elastomeric material is any material exhibiting elastic or rubber-like properties. Generally speaking, elastomeric materials are measured in material type, compound, and durometer (the material’s hardness).

A polymer that displays elastic properties. A part from Latex (the natural product), most elastomeric products fall into the category of “Synthetic Elastomer” the use of the word elastomer is used interchangeably with rubber nevertheless, Silicone is more correctly an “elastomer”.



  1. the state of being elongated or lengthened also : the process of growing or increasing in length chain elongation in DNA synthesis the elongation of a muscle under tension.
  2. something that is elongated.

During elongation, amino acids are continually added to the line, forming a long chain bound together by peptide bonds. Once a stop codon reaches the ribosome, translation stops, or terminates. At termination, the polypeptide is freed from the ribosome, and tRNAs stop bringing the amino acids in.


ELONGATION, ULTIMATE– Ultimate elongation is the percentage change in length from original to rupture. Modulus. Modulus is the force at a specific elongation value, ie 100% or 300% elongation. Expressed in pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa), modulus is most widely used for testing and comparison purposes at 100% elongation.

Elongation is the percentage increase of the original length of a rubber sample, as a result of tensile force being applied to the sample itself. Elongation is inversely proportional to hardness, tensile strength, and modulus.

Elongation to failure is a measure of the ductility of a materials, in other words it is the amount of strain it can experience before failure in tensile testing.


EMBOSSING– Embossing rollers are used to create patterns on substrates. We have multiple surface finish roller bases for high performance and long term wear resistance.

Generally, embossing is the process most often employed to attract attention or convey a high quality textural contrast in relation to the surrounding area of the paper stock. “Debossing” is similar to embossing, but recesses the design rather than raising it.


EMBRITTLEMENT– Embrittlement is a significant decrease of ductility of a material, which makes the material brittle. Embrittlement is used to describe any phenomena where the environment compromises a stressed material’s mechanical performance, such as temperature or environmental composition.


ENDOTHERMIC – Endothermic reactions take in energy and the temperature of the surroundings decreases. An endothermic process absorbs heat and cools the surroundings.


EXOTHERMIC – In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo- : “outside”) describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound.

Exothermic reactions are reactions or processes that release energy, usually in the form of heat or light. In an exothermic reaction, energy is released because the total energy of the products is less than the total energy of the reactants.

If heat is given off, the reaction is exothermic. Exothermic means that during the reaction, molecules have moved from a higher state of energy to a lower state. An endothermic reaction is the opposite. This is when a reaction starts colder and ends up hotter, taking in energy from start to finish.


EXTENDER – Much less attention is directed toward information on these materials, … In this case, the additional pigment does not compromise the mechanical properties of the film. … Extenders were at one time classified as inert pigments.


EXTRACTION– Extraction is a process in which one or more components are separated selectively from a liquid or solid mixture, the feed (Phase 1), by means of a liquid immiscible solvent (Phase 2).

The three most common types of extractions are: liquid/liquid, liquid/solid, and acid/base (also known as a chemically active extraction). The coffee and tea examples are both of the liquid/solid type in which a compound (caffeine) is isolated from a solid mixture by using a liquid extraction solvent (water).


EXTRUDER – An extruder is simply the machine used to complete the extrusion process. Using a system of barrels and cylinders, the machine heats up the product and propels it through the die to create the desired shape


EXTRUSION PRINCIPLES  – Introduction Extrusion of thermoplastics is a process in which the material is melted by external heat / frictional heat and conveyed forward by a screw to the opening of the die, which gives the shape of the required product.
There are different types of extrusion processes, however, including cold, hot, friction and micro.

  • Cold Extrusion. With cold extrusion, metal is forced through the die while at or near room temperature. …
  • Hot Extrusion. …
  • Friction Extrusion. …
  • Micro Extrusion.


EXUDATION – The term exudation refers to the process or act of exuding. It may also refer to the exudate itself. An exudate is produced during inflammation. It oozes or passes gradually from a structure or tissue or through the blood vessel wall. The fluid is often a cloudy fluid or pus-like.

An exudate is a fluid emitted by an organism through pores or a wound, a process known as exuding or exudation. Exudate is derived from exude, “to ooze”, from the Latin exsūdāre, “to (ooze out) sweat” (ex- “out” and sūdāre “to sweat”).


Electrical grounding – To connect with the ground to make the earth part of the circuit.


Entry – An underground horizontal or near-horizontal passage used for haulage, ventilation, or as a main way; a coal heading; a working place where the coal is extracted from the seam in the initial mining; same as “gate” and “roadway,” both British terms.


Evaluation – The work involved in gaining a knowledge of the size, shape, position and value of coal.


Examiner – An official who patrols a mine section to examine the workings for accumulation of gas and other hazards.


Exploration – The search for mineral deposits and the work done to prove or establish the extent of a mineral deposit. Alt: Prospecting and subsequent evaluation.


Explosive – Any rapidly combustive or expanding substance. The energy released during this rapid combustion or expansion can be used to break rock.


Extraction – The process of mining and removal of Cal or ore from a mine.

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