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Glossary of Terms

A

ASTM – ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. List of ASTM International standards: A = Iron and Steel Materials. B […]

B

Butadiene rubber – synthetic rubber widely employed in tire treads for trucks and automobiles. It consists of polybutadiene, an elastomer (elastic polymer) built up by chemically linking multiple molecules of butadiene to form giant molecules, or polymers. The polymer is noted for its high resistance to abrasion, low heat buildup, and resistance to cracking.   […]

C

CM – CM are speciality elastomers that can be crosslinked either by curing agents or irradiation leading to parts with fair flexibility, resistance to heat, oils and fuels, ignition, chemicals, low temperatures and weathering. Because of their resistance to automotive fluids CM are used for hoses, tubing, air ducts and wire jacketing, tubes and covers […]

D

DAMPING – Damping is an influence within or upon an oscillatory system that has the effect of reducing or preventing its oscillation. In physical systems, damping is produced by processes that dissipate the energy stored in the oscillation. Damping, in physics, restraining of vibratory motion, such as mechanical oscillations, noise, and alternating electric currents, by […]

E

EPDM – ASTM– EPDM stands for ethylene propylene diene monomer, which is a bit of a mouthful, so it’s commonly shortened to EPDM or EPDM rubber. EPDM gets its name from the chemicals (monomers) that are mixed together in various proportions to form it. These are ethylene, propylene and diene.   EPM – ASTM- Ethylene […]

F

FKM – ASTM– FKM is the ASTM designation for a class of fluorinated, carbon-based synthetic rubber, commonly known as fluoroelastomer. FKM has impressive heat resistance, allowing FKM seals to withstand temperatures greater than 200°C. FKM is the American standard ASTM short form name for Fluro-Elastomer. It is the designation for around 80% of Fluoro-Elastomers defined […]

G

GR-S– any of a class of general-purpose synthetic rubbers that are made by copolymerizing emulsions of butadiene and styrene commonly at a temperature of either 122° F or 41° F and that are used especially in tires. The rubber designated GRS (Government Rubber Styrene), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, was the basis for U.S. […]

H

HALOGEN – A halogen is a chemical element that forms a salt when it reacts with metal. Halogen lamps are illuminated by bulbs that contain a halogen and an inert gas. There are five halogens in the periodic table of chemical elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Elements: Fluorine; Iodine; Bromine; Chlorine… Halogens are […]

I

I.D. OR ID- The inside diameter (ID) of a hollow circular object, like a pipe, is a measurement of the distance of a straight line from one point on the inner wall of the object, through its center, to an opposite point also on the inside. … Inside diameter is also known as inner diameter […]

J

Jackleg – A percussion drill used for drifting or stopping that is mounted on a telescopic leg which has an extension of about 2.5 m. The leg and machine are hinged so that the drill need not be in the same direction as the leg.   Jackrock – A caltrop or other object manufactured with […]

K

KNIT LINES OR MARKS– A knit line is any line, visible or not, where two resin flows meet. Depending on the design of the mold and the material being injected, a knit line may: present no problem at all, be a cosmetic issue, or cause a potentially serious structural problem. Avoid weld lines in areas […]

L

LIM – Liquid injection molding, or LIM, is a production process commonly used to make rubber parts or to make parts that need to withstand extreme conditions, regardless of the industry. Injection Molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts in large volume. It is most typically used in mass-production processes where the same part […]

M

MANDREL– a usually tapered or cylindrical axle, spindle, or arbor inserted into a hole in a piece of work to support it during machining. a metal bar that serves as a core around which material (such as metal) may be cast, molded, forged, bent, or otherwise shaped. Mandrel, cylinder, usually steel, used to support a […]

N

NBR – Nitrile rubber (NBR), also called nitrile-butadiene rubber, an oil-resistant synthetic rubber produced from a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene. Its main applications are in fuel hoses, gaskets, rollers, and other products in which oil resistance is required. NBR is the polymerization of Acrylonitrile (CH2=CHCN) and Butadiene (CH2CH-CH=CH2) into one large multiple-unit chains. The […]

O

O.D. AND OD– The outside diameter of a pipe or any cylinder is exactly what it sounds like – the distance from one outside edge of the pipe to the opposite outside edge, measuring straight across the face of the pipe or across a cross-section that runs perpendicular to the pipe’s long axis. If you […]

P

pH – It is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Acidic solutions (solutions with higher concentrations of H+ ions) are measured to have lower pH values than basic or alkaline solutions. To calculate the pH of an aqueous solution you need to know the concentration of the hydronium […]

R

RHC– Total Hydrocarbon Content represents the percentage of polymer or polymers in the formulation. It is determined by subtracting the non-polymer constituents from 100%. a white highly polymerized hydrocarbon (C5H8)n or (C10H16)n that is amorphous at ordinary temperatures and that is stereoisomeric with gutta hydrocarbon and constitutes the principal component of natural rubber : a […]

S

SI – The International System of Units (abbreviated SI, from the French Système international d’unités) is the metric system used in science, industry, and medicine. The International System of Units (SI), commonly known as the metric system, is the international standard for measurement. The International Treaty of the Meter was signed in Paris on May […]

T

TGA– Thermogravimetric analysis or thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a method of thermal analysis in which the mass of a sample is measured over time as the temperature changes. The Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) is an essential laboratory tool used for material characterization. TGA is used as a technique to characterize materials used in various environmental, […]

U

ULTRA ACCELATOR– Vulcanization is a cross linking process in which individual molecules of rubber (polymer) are converted into a three-dimensional network of interconnected (polymer) chains through chemical cross links (of sulphur). … Both discovered the use of Sulphur and White Lead as a vulcanization system for Natural Rubber.   ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT– Ultraviolet light is a […]

V

VISCOSITY– Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. It describes the internal friction of a moving fluid. A fluidwith large viscosity resists motion because its molecular makeup gives it a lot of internal friction. Viscosity is the measure of resistance of a fluid to flow. A fluid that is highly viscous has […]

W

WEATHERING– Weathering is the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on Earths surface. Once a rock has been broken down, a process called erosion transports the bits of rock and minerals away. Water, acids, salt, plants, animals, and changes in temperature are all agents of weathering and erosion. There are three types of […]

Y

YERZLEY RESILIENCE– One test method is the Bayshore Resilience method. It calls for the dropping of a weighted ball from a specified height onto a given material sample. The rebound height of the ball is then measured and used to determine how resilient the material is to the stress. The result is an indicator of […]

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