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Glossary of Terms

LIM – Liquid injection molding, or LIM, is a production process commonly used to make rubber parts or to make parts that need to withstand extreme conditions, regardless of the industry.

Injection Molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts in large volume. It is most typically used in mass-production processes where the same part is being created thousands or even millions of times in succession.

Four Stages in Injection Moulding

  • Injection mould filling stage. Injection mould filling is the first step in the process of producing plastic parts for all injection moulds. …
  • Maintaining pressure stage. The stage of injection mould pressure preservation is also a stage of continuous pressure application. …
  • The cooling stage. …
  • Demoulding stage.


LAMINATE – Laminating is the process through which two or more flexible packaging webs are joined together using a bonding agent. … In general terms an adhesive is applied to the less absorbent substrate web, after which the second web is pressed against it to produce a duplex, or two-layer, laminate.

What are the Different Types of Laminates?

  1. Matte-finish laminate. Matte-finish laminates are one of the most preferred laminate finishes that are used for the kitchen and other carpentry works. …
  2. Textured laminate. …
  3. Gloss-finish laminate. …
  4. Metallic laminate. …
  5. PVC-finish laminates. …
  6. Acrylic-finish laminate. …
  7. Exterior laminate.


LATEX – Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in water. Latexes are found in nature, but synthetic latexes are common as well. Latex as found in nature is a milky fluid found in 10% of all flowering plants (angiosperms).

The milky liquid which oozes out of the rubber tree, called “latex”, is a colloid (or sol) just like milk. It consists of microscopic rubber particles distributed in water medium. Natural rubber is solidified (coagulated) liquid latex.

Latex is a milky white colour fluid which is generally found from the rubber trees. Complete answer: The latex is considered as a colloidal dispersion of rubber in water. The latex is a negatively charged substance in which the rubber particles are made up by the negatively charged protein membrane.


LATEX CEMENT– Latex cements have many uses, including for concrete resurfacing, tuck pointing, patching cracks or pits in concrete and installing tile. Thicknesses greater than ¼ inch require multiple coats of latex cement. You should allow the surface to dry between coats, according to the JETomes website.

PFC is an ultra-high-strength concrete whose properties can be further enhanced by incorporating steel fibers. The way in which PFC is prepared leads to very few voids in the final material, which gives it its high strength — 400 MPa can be applied to PFC before it fails, compared with 20-30 MPa for standard concrete.

They are usually about two bucks. Rubber cement, like you can buy in the stationary store ca also be used to glue latex, it contains the solvent that breaks down latex rubber and will bond it, together but takes a little practice.


LEAD PRESS CURE– Vulcanization gives rubber its characteristic elastic quality. This process is carried out by mixing the latex with sulphur (other vulcanizing agents such as selenium and tellurium are occasionally used but sulphur is the most common) and heating it in one of two ways. Pressure vulcanization.

Vulcanization, chemical process by which the physical properties of natural or synthetic rubber are improved; finished rubber has higher tensile strength and resistance to swelling and abrasion, and is elastic over a greater range of temperatures.

During a vulcanization process, rubber and sulfur, along with other chemicals, is heated to about 280 degrees to 350 degrees Fahrenheit in a pressurized mold. The combination of heat and chemicals forces the rubber to retract, and harden.


LIGHT AGING – Increasing evidence suggests an important role for light in regulation of aging and longevity. UV radiation is a mutagen that can promote aging and decrease longevity. … Visible light also impacts human health, including retina function, sleep, cancer and psychiatric disorders.


LOADING – Rubber compounding was performed on a two-roll mill (Lab Walzwerk MT 6″×13″, Rubicon, Germany) in a three-stage process. In the first stage, the rubber was mixed with zinc oxide, stearic acid, CB, and Struktol or IPPD. Then the rubber/MLG masterbatch was added to the rubber compound in the second stage.


LOT – lot means a large quantity or number, whereas mass means a quantity of matter cohering together so as to make one body, or an aggregation of particles or things which collectively make one body or quantity, usually of considerable size.


LOW TEMPERATURE FLEXIBILITY– For example, in low-temperature applications, low melting point alloys can substitute high-temperature materials. A material that is easier to machine, or that involves less energy to manufacture, can replace an energy-intensive material. Water-based paints can be used without baking in certain applications.

Most adhesives will maintain optimal adhesion in service temperatures from -65 to 200° F (-54 to 93° C) with a paper facestock and as high as 300° F (148.9° C) with a film facestock. Cold flow. Cold flow is an indication of how well an adhesive will adhere or bond to your containers when exposed to colder temperatures.


LOW TEMPERATURE RETRACTION – Since low temperature can lead to cracking, breaking, and failure of a rubber seal, testing low-temperature elasticity is imperative to ensuring seal performance. One of the most recognized low-temperature tests is “Retraction at Lower Temperatures (TR Test)” [ASTM D1329].

The TR test is a standard testing method for evaluating rubber properties at low temperatures. The test is mainly used to determine the brittleness point or the compression set and recovery behavior of elastomers.


LUBRICANTS – Lubricant is a substance which is used to control (more often to reduce) friction and wear of the surfaces in a contact of the bodies in relative motion [1]. Depending on its nature, lubricants are also used to eliminate heat and wear debris, supply additives into the contact, transmit power, protect, seal.

Common examples of internal lubricants include fatty alcohols, esters (low esterification), and EVA wax. External lubricants provide metal release and help reduce process temperature. Common examples of external lubricants include PE waxes, paraffin, metal soaps, esters (high esterification), amides, and fatty acids.
Lubrication and greasing: definition and examples. Lubrication is a process which aims at reducing friction between two moving pieces. When two surfaces come in contact with one another, a fluid must be injected to separate them. The word « greasing » applies when grease is used to lubricate.


Lamp – The electric cap lamp worn for visibility. Also, the flame safety lamp used in coal mines to detect methane gas concentrations and oxygen deficiency.


Lamp Cabin – The place where mine lamps are stored, repaired, charged with electricity or oil and issued to personnel before going underground.


Layout – The design or pattern of the main roadways and workings. The proper layout of mine workings is the responsibility of the manager aided by the planning department.


Level – An excavation or passageway driven in the coal, establishing a base from which other workings begin. A colliery level does not mean a passageway excavated on a horizontal plane. A level is generally excavated in one or more slight inclines.


Lift – The amount of coal obtained from a continuous miner in one mining cycle.


Lignite – A brownish black coal that is intermediate between peat and sub-bituminous coal.


Liquefaction – The process of converting coal into a synthetic fuel, similar in nature to crude oil and/or refined products, such as gasoline.


Lithology – The character of a rock described in terms of its structure, color, mineral composition, grain size, and arrangement of its component parts; all those visible features that in the aggregate impart individuality of the rock. Lithology is the basis of correlation in coal mines and commonly is reliable over a distance of a few miles.


Load – To place explosives in a drill hole. Also, to transfer broken material into a haulage device.


Loader – A miner’s assistant who loads coal into boxes and generally assists the miner at the face.


Loading machine – Any device for transferring excavated coal into the haulage equipment.


Loading pocket – Transfer point at a shaft where bulk material is loaded by bin, hopper, and chute into a skip.


Long Wall – A mining operation at a long coal face between parallel passages, the face being from 50 to 100+ feet, from which the coal is blasted, then loaded by hand onto mechanically shaken pans which move the coal to the pit boxes.


Longwall Mining – One of three major underground coal mining methods currently in use. Employs a steal plow, or rotation drum, which is pulled mechanically back and forth across a face of coal that is usually several hundred feet long. The loosened coal falls onto a conveyor for removal from the mine.


Loose coal – Coal fragments larger in size than coal dust.


Low-Volatile Bituminous Coal – A non-binding bituminous coal with 78% to 86% fixed carbon and 14% to 22% volatile matter.


Low voltage – Up to and including 660 volts by federal standards.

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