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Glossary of Terms

WEATHERING– Weathering is the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on Earths surface. Once a rock has been broken down, a process called erosion transports the bits of rock and minerals away. Water, acids, salt, plants, animals, and changes in temperature are all agents of weathering and erosion.

There are three types of weathering, physical, chemical and biological.

Weathering is the wearing away of the surface of rock, soil, and minerals into smaller pieces. Example of weathering: Wind and water cause small pieces of rock to break off at the side of a mountain.


WRAPPED CURE– Vulcanization (British: Vulcanisation) is a range of processes for hardening rubbers. The term originally referred exclusively to the treatment of natural rubber with … The product is packed in airtight cartridges and is either in a fluid or paste form.

Vulcanization, chemical process by which the physical properties of natural or synthetic rubber are improved; finished rubber has higher tensile strength and resistance to swelling and abrasion, and is elastic over a greater range of temperatures. …

The first process, called Pressure Vulcanization involves heating the rubber with sulfur under pressure, with a temperature of 150C. The second process, called Free Vulcanization, simply involves passing very hot steam or air through the rubber.


Waste – That rock or mineral which must be removed from a mine to keep the mining scheme practical, but which has no value.


Water Gauge (standard U-tube) – Instrument that measures differential pressures in inches of water.


Wedge – A piece of wood tapering to a thin edge and used for tightening in conventional timbering.


Weight – Fracturing and lowering of the roof strata at the face as a result of mining operations, as in “taking weight”.


White damp – Carbon monoxide, CO. A gas that may be present in the afterdamp of a gas- or coal-dust explosion, or in the gases given off by a mine fire; also one of the constituents of the gases produced by blasting. Rarely found in mines under other circumstances. It is absorbed by the hemoglobin of the blood to the exclusion of oxygen. One-tenth of 1% (.001) may be fatal in 10 minutes.


Width – The thickness of a lode measured at right angles to the dip.


Winning – The excavation, loading, and removal of coal or ore from the ground; winning follows development.


Winze – Secondary or tertiary vertical or near-vertical opening sunk from a point inside a mine for the purpose of connecting with a lower level or of exploring the ground for a limited depth below a level.


Wire rope – A steel wire rope used for winding in shafts and underground haulages. Wire ropes are made from medium carbon steels. Various constructions of wire rope are designated by the number of strands in the rope and the number of wires in each strand. The following are some common terms encountered: airplane strand; cablelaid rope; cane rope; elevator rope; extra-flexible hoisting rope; flat rope; flattened-strand rope; guy rope; guy strand; hand rope; haulage rope; hawser; hoisting rope; lang lay rope; lay; left lay rope; left twist; nonspinning rope; regular lay; reverse-laid rope; rheostat rope; right lay; right twist; running rope; special flexible hoisting rope; standing rope; towing hawser; transmission rope.


Working – When a coal seam is being squeezed by pressure from roof and floor, it emits creaking noises and is said to be “working”. This often serves as a warning to the miners that additional support is needed.


Working face – Any place in a mine where material is extracted during a mining cycle.


Working place – From the outby side of the last open crosscut to the face.


Workings – An excavation of a mine, as a whole, or that part of a mine in which mining operations are being done.


Working section – From the faces to the point where coal is loaded onto belts or rail cars to begin its trip to the outside

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