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Glossary of Terms

CM – CM are speciality elastomers that can be crosslinked either by curing agents or irradiation leading to parts with fair flexibility, resistance to heat, oils and fuels, ignition, chemicals, low temperatures and weathering.

Because of their resistance to automotive fluids CM are used for hoses, tubing, air ducts and wire jacketing, tubes and covers for return side power steering hoses, single construction emission and vacuum tubing, hose covers, large diameters and convoluted geometries required for air intake ducts

CPE has been used successfully in under-the-hood wire and cable-coating…


CO – Epichlorohydrin homopolymer (CO) monomer and polymer structure. … The epichlorohydrin monomer provides heat and ozone resistance, fuel and oil resistance, and gas permeation resistance.


CR– Chloroprene rubber (CR) is a synthetic rubber that is also known by the trade name Neoprene. CR has a good balance of properties, including good chemical stability and usefulness over a wide temperature range.

Neoprene (CR), also called polychloroprene or chloroprene rubber, synthetic rubber produced by the polymerization (or linking together of single molecules into giant, multiple-unit molecules) of chloroprene.


CSM– CSM grades usually contain 20 – 45 percent chlorine which provides excellent resistance to ozone, UV, weathering, and chemicals. This includes oxidizing agents, hot water (when cured) and corrosive chemicals. It also has good resistance to dry heat up to 150°C, low flammability, low gas permeability, and good electrical properties. However, it has poor/fair fuel resistance and its low temperature properties are generally limited, depending on the chlorine content of the CSM grade. Furthermore, its compression set is rather low.


CALENDAR– Calendaring is a mechanical process by which either plastic or rubber is pressed into textiles (cloth, fabric, tire cord) forming composite sheets. … Calendared sheets can have multiple layers of both the elastomeric and polymer “sandwiched” together.

Calendaring is a speciality process for high-volume, high quality plastic film and sheet, mainly used for PVC as well as for certain other modified thermoplastics. The melted polymer is subject to heat and pressure in an extruder and formed into sheet or film by calendaring rolls.


CARBON – Carbon Black is the most widely used and cost-effective rubber reinforcing agent (typically called Rubber Carbon Black) in tire components (such as treads, sidewalls and inner liners), in mechanical ru ber goods (“MRG”), including industrial rubber goods, membrane roofing, automotive rubber parts (such as sealing).

Almost all rubber compounds use carbon black (CB) as a filler. Carbon black filler functions to strengthen, increase the volume, improve the physical properties of rubber, and strengthen vulcanization. The results of the rubber compound can be useful in making shoe soles, gloves, and motorized vehicle tires.


CARBON BLACK MASTERBATCH – The masterbatch includes carbon black in a concentration that is in excess of 40 weight percent (wt %) of the masterbatch, and a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) carrier resin in a concentration that is in the range of 40 to 60 wt % of the masterbatch and has a melt flow index above 100 g/10 min at 2.16 kg/190° C.

A compound is compounded as a whole and purchased ready to use straight away ‘as is. ‘ Whereas masterbatch is a pre-dispersed colour concentrate that is let down with natural polymer in ratios from 1 to 5%. There are different ways of mixing thermoplastics for compounding (compounds & masterbatches/concentrates)


CAST – A mould precedes a cast. When moulding a fossil, the organism is left to dissolve or decay in the sediment where it will leave a mould. In engineering, a mould can be synthetically made out of any object. Then a case is the subsequent step of filling the mould with specific materials to make a final product.

Fossil moulds and casts preserve a three-dimensional impression of remains buried in sediment. The mineralized impression of the organism left in the sediment is called a mould. The mineralized sediment that fills the mould recreates the shape of the remains. This is called a cast.


CAVITY – A tool with one impression is often called a single impression (cavity) mould. A mould with two or more cavities of the same parts is usually called a multiple impression (cavity) mould. Some extremely high production volume moulds (like those for bottle caps) can have over 128 cavities.

The number of cavities can be from 1 to a reported maximum of 216. Since the number of items moulded in one shot becomes large as the number of cavities becomes large, it is possible to reduce the cost of production per item


CELL– Three principal types of cells may be distinguished—choanocytes, archaeocytes, and pinacocytes–collencytes.


CELLULAR MATERIAL– Cellular Materials (also known as FOAMS) are two phases materials in which a continuous gas phase has been dispersed in a solid phase. CELLULAR MATERIALS: DEFINITION. Open cell cellular materials.

Protoplast is the living part of the cell inside the cell wall and includes the cell membrane and the protoplasm. Protoplasm is the cell contents inside the protoplast and consists of cytoplasm and the nucleus. Cytoplasm is the cell content inside the cell membrane but outside the nucleus. Contains the organelles.


CELSIUS – Celsius (or “degrees Celsius”, or sometimes “Centigrade”) is a temperature scale. It is used to tell how hot or cold something is. It is often written as °C. Water freezes at 0°C and boils at 100°C. See: Fahrenheit.

Because of the widespread adoption of the metric system, most countries worldwide – including non-metric Liberia and Burma – use Celsius as their official temperature scale. Only a few countries use Fahrenheit as their official scale: the United States, Belize, Palau, the Bahamas and the Cayman Islands.


CEMENT (Rubber) – Rubber Surfacing is a versatile flooring option that can be installed over concrete, asphalt, brick, wood, steel, tile, flagstone, and even dirt.

NON-PERMEABLE – Liquid rubber paint creates an impermeable barrier between the substrate and the environment. They can withstand ponding water for flat roofs, or be used in overspill containment. They are waterproof, vapour tight, air and gas barriers.

For indoor items made of rubber that will not get a lot of wear and tear, use acrylic craft paint. You may need to use two coats, and be sure to let the paint dry thoroughly between coats. After the paint is completely dry, seal it. Find a paint sealer in the paint department at a craft or home improvement store.


CHALKING – Chalking is a loose, white powdery pigment residue on the surface of a coating accompanied by a loss of sheen and color. This can be expected to occur over time and is a normal way for paint film to wear. In some cases, this is a self-cleaning feature designed into the coating.


CHECKING – This test is done by comparing the weight of dry rubber specimen to the weight of the specimen when submerged in water. The specific gravity of rubber is determined by high precision analytical balances per ASTM method D297.

The quality of rubber varies widely due to the percentage of ash content into it. To check the ash percentage, you just burn the sample in the muffle furnace and measure the left-over ash on the calibrated weight. The carbon contents will get turned into fumes and taken out.


CHLOROPRENE– Chloroprene is a chemical used to make a synthetic rubber commonly known as neoprene. Neoprene is used in a wide variety of consumer goods, including footwear, gloves, athletic gear, bags, bandages, and fabrics.


CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE – Chlorosulfonated polyethylene is a family of chlorinated elastomers. The materials is made by reacting polyethylene with chlorine and sulfur dioxide to yield chlorosul-fonated polyethylene. The reaction changes the thermoplastic polyethylene into a synthetic elastomer that can be compounded and vulcanised.


COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION– the ratio of the increase of length, area, or volume of a body per degree rise in temperature to its length, area, or volume, respectively, at some specified temperature, commonly 0° C, the pressure being kept constant.

Linear thermal expansion is ΔL = αLΔT, where ΔL is the change in length L, ΔT is the change in temperature, and α is the coefficient of linear expansion, which varies slightly with temperature. The change in area due to thermal expansion is ΔA = 2αAΔT, where ΔA is the change in area.


COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION – Typical values for the coefficient of friction when sliding is occurring, i.e. the dynamic coefficient of friction are: for polished oiled metal surfaces, less than 0.1. for glass on glass, 0.4. for rubber on tarmac, close to 1.0.


COLD BEND– Cold bending is referring to all types of bending that does not use any added heat to bend the pipes. The procedure is usually performed by wrapping a pipe or other material around a die or shape that causes the pipe to bend. The procedure is rather fast and even more so as it doesn’t need to cool down or be taken care of in any particular way after the bending has been performed. As the machines used for cold bending aren’t very expensive in general, due to not being particularly complex or advanced, cold bending can be a good option for smaller companies that doesn’t have a large budget. It can also be a good method for companies that aren’t specialised in bending but only needs to perform it every once in a while. The negative aspect of all types of cold bending is that it’s not possible to bend to radically. In most instances, you will have to fill the machine with filler material, like sand, for the pipe not to crease or break due to a radical angle.


COLD FLOW – Another term for creep, cold flow is a type of material deformation that is defined as the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform under the influence of mechanical stress. Cold flow is a time-dependent deformation and accumulates as a result of long-term exposure to stress; the rate of cold flow is determined by the material’s properties, exposure time, exposure temperature, and the degree of stress that is applied to the material. Temperature is a particularly influential factor as virtually all materials will demonstrate cold flow when approaching their melting point. This means that cold flow can occur at relatively low temperatures; for example, some plastics and metals (with low melting temperatures) will begin to flow at room temperature, while glacier flow is a result of creep in ice.

In labelling, cold flow can occur in any of the materials used to make labels, including adhesives, coatings, face materials, backing sheets, and printing inks. Cold flow is most commonly caused by label materials being exposed to too much heat and/or pressure at any point throughout the manufacturing and printing processes, during storage, or after a label has been applied to a substrate. It is particularly problematic when dealing with label adhesives, as cold flow will result in an adhesive moving outside of its own layer within a label construction, which can result in blocking (surface to surface sticking between sheets or rolls of labels), deformation or discolouration in adjacent layers, can damage printers, and can ultimately prevent a label from successfully adhering to a substrate. When cold flow occurs in an adhesive it is commonly referred to as adhesive bleed or adhesive ooze.


COMPATIBILITY – The Concept of Compatibility in Polyblends
When liquids are mixed to form a homogeneous and single -phase mixture, they are said to be compatible. This mixing is straightforward, and the result is easily observed; mixing polymers is quite different.


COMPOSITE – Composites, also known as Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites, are made from a polymer matrix that is reinforced with an engineered, man-made or natural fibre (like glass, carbon or aramid) or other reinforcing material.

Most composite materials are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. – A homogeneous material is one where properties are uniform throughout, i.e. they do not depend on position in body.

Typical engineered composite materials include: Reinforced concrete and masonry. Composite wood such as plywood. Reinforced plastics, such as fibre-reinforced polymer or fiberglass.


COMPOUND – Mixtures are heterogeneous forms of matter. Mixtures are composed of variable proportions of molecules and atoms. Compounds are homogeneous forms of matter. Their constituent elements (atoms and/or ions) are always present in fixed proportions (1:1 depicted here).

Compound are substances which can be formed by chemically combining two or more elements. Mixtures are substances that are formed by physically mixing two or more substances.


COMPOUNDING MATERIAL – Compounding is a process of melt blending plastics with other additives. This process changes the physical, thermal, electrical or aesthetic characteristics of the plastic. The final product is called a compound or composite. Compounding starts with a base resin or polymer.


COMPRESSION MOULDING – Compression moulding is a high-volume, high-pressure method suitable for moulding complex, high-strength fiberglass reinforcements. Advanced composite thermoplastics can also be compression moulded with unidirectional tapes, woven fabrics, randomly oriented fibre mat or chopped strand.

Compression moulding is a process of moulding in which a feeding material is placed into an open, heated mould cavity. The mould is then closed with a top plug and compressed with large hydraulic presses in order to have the material contact all areas of the mould. The charge cures in the heated mould.


COMPRESSION SET – Compression set is often a property of interest when using elastomers. Compression set is the amount of permanent deformation that occurs when a material is compressed to a specific deformation, for a specified time, at a specific temperature.

Compression set is the difference between the original thickness of the specimen and the thickness after test, expressed as a percentage of the original thickness. In determining compression set by Method B, the specimen is compressed to 75% of its original thickness.


CONTINUOUS VULCANIZATION – The first process, called Pressure Vulcanization involves heating the rubber with sulphur under pressure, with a temperature of 150C. The second process, called Free Vulcanization, simply involves passing very hot steam or air through the rubber.

The process of treating crude or synthetic rubber or similar plastic material chemically to give it useful properties (such as elasticity, strength, and stability)

Vulcanization is a chemical process in which the rubber is heated with sulphur, accelerator and activator at 140–160°C. The process involves the formation of cross-links between long rubber molecules so as to achieve improved elasticity, resilience, tensile strength, viscosity, hardness and weather resistance.


COPOLYMER – Copolymer refers to a kind of polymer that contains two or more distinct repeating units called “monomers.” It produces high molecular weight substances by chemical combination or the polymerization of monomers. It is used to produce a variety of products like plastics, tires and tubes.

Copolymers are formed from the linking of two or more monomer subunits that are different from one another. These molecules are classified as a type of polymer. There are three different forms of copolymers: block, random, and alternate.

A copolymer is a polymer that is made up of two or more monomer species. Many commercially important polymers are copolymers. Examples include polyethylene-vinyl acetate (PEVA), nitrile rubber, and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). … A homopolymer is a polymer that is made up of only one type of monomer unit.


CORROSION –  Corrasion is the deterioration and loss of a material and its critical properties due to chemical, electrochemical and other reactions of the exposed material surface with the surrounding environment.

Corrosion of metals and nonmetals takes place due to the gradual environmental interaction on the material surface. The structures and facilities of different materials are affected by this interaction. Even the ambient air, laden with moisture and oxygen, can start this process, known as rusting, on steel surfaces.

In the case of buried structures and pipelines the soil chemistry and moisture determine the rate of damage.
Fumes of acids such as sulfuric acid and dust of caustic soda also accelerate corrosion. In the case of aluminium, however, the oxide film formed due to initial corrosive attack protects the surface from further damage. In marine environments, in which airborne salt crystals are deposited onto ships, corrosion of submerged surfaces as well as surfaces floating above water level occurs.

Corrosion affects the microstructure, mechanical properties and the physical appearance of the materials. Rusting and other types of deterioration drastically reduces the capacity of pipelines and equipment, resulting in loss of output as well as loss of equipment, or even life.
Hence, anti-corrosive coatings are used to combat the corrosion damage to critical structures and equipment

Anode Corrosion Efficiency Anode corrosion efficiency is the efficiency wherein electrons or charge are shifted in a type of system that facilitates electrochemical reaction. It describes the ratio of actual corrosion to theoretical rates, according to the overall current flow as measured by Faraday’s law, gaining from the amount of electricity that passes through.

The word “faradaic” can be associated with two aspects: Faraday as the notable charge unit, that has been replaced by “coulomb,” as well as Faraday’s constant or the substance amount. This electrochemical phenomenon was first explained by Michael Faraday as reflected in his remarkable work on electrolysis laws.

Anode corrosion efficiency is also known as faradaic yield, faradaic efficiency, current efficiency or coulombic efficiency.

In general, faradaic losses occur in both galvanic and electrolytic cells. This usually takes place when ions or electrons join in undesirable side reactions. Such losses are reflected as chemical or heat by products.

A great example can be seen in water oxidation into oxygen considering the positive electrode. A number of electrodes are redirected when producing hydrogen peroxide. A fraction of these electrons presents faradaic losses, which may differ per apparatus. Thus, it must be measured accurately to determine precise anodic corrosion efficiency values.

The self-discharge that limits the shelf-life of batteries is an example of faradaic loss, and measuring anodic corrosion efficiency in particular.

In spite of proper electrolysis, losses can still happen if the products are allowed to recombine. In the case of hydrolysis, oxygen and hydrogen could merge to create water. This could occur under the presence of catalytic matter like palladium and platinum which are the most widely used electrodes. Failure to explain the anodic corrosion efficiency effect can be pointed out as one of the causes of not identifying positive outcomes in experiments involving cold fusion.


Corrosion Testing –  Corrosion testing refers to the processes conducted by laboratories in order to solve, prevent or mitigate problems related to corrosion. These processes can be applied in industrial materials and infrastructure products, and are often used in failure analysis.

All corrosion laboratories are composed of expert failure analysts, chemists and engineers that are all certified in corrosion testing. Such tests can provide useful information in order to make sound decisions regarding selection of materials, processing and treatment.

Corrosion laboratories can conduct a broad range of laboratory tests that are typically focused on areas such as:

  • Electrochemical
  • Corrosivity
  • Heat transfer
  • Immersion

Testing of various materials used in industrial applications is required to verify conformation to quality standards. One example is immersion testing, which is considered the most popular and simplest type of corrosion test. This test is used to assess different materials that are subjected to particular conditions. It is a very versatile process which can be personalized to meet specific needs regardless of application. In this test, the testing apparatus can expose the specimen to test solutions and then subject it to different physical or metallurgical situations, such as crevices and heat treatment.

Another test is the hot wall test, which is utilized to evaluate situations where metal vessels are hotter than bulk solutions.

These are common in external heated vessels where corrosion is typically impacted by temperature. In this test, elevated temperatures signify high levels of corrosion activity.


Corrosion Resistance –  Corrosion resistance refers to the resistance a material offers against a reaction with adverse elements that can corrode the material. Various materials have this property intrinsically, depending upon their corrosion resistance rate. Alternatively, some methods or treatments can be used to resist corrosion, such as painting or hot dip galvanizing, or a combination of these methods with coating.

Corrosion is a process in which a material is oxidized by substances in the environment that cause the material to lose electrons. Corrosion resistance is the capacity to hold the binding energy of a metal and withstand the deterioration and chemical breakdown that would otherwise occur when the material is exposed to such an environment

Resistance to corrosion is expressed in terms of the corrosion rate and measured in units of millimetre per year or “mils.” These measurements for resistance to corrosion attack are taken in a particular environment at defined operating conditions, pressure, temperature and fluid velocity.

Besides intrinsic corrosion resistance, a metal’s resistance to corrosion can be increased by applying different methods such as cathodic protection, coating, painting and applying a corrosion inhibitor. There are no materials that are resistant to all corrosion in all environments. Materials must be matched to the environment they will experience. Corrosion resistances for metals are estimated and data is used to check the sustainability of a metal in a particular environment.

Protective coatings are the most widely used corrosion control technique. Essentially, protective coating materials are a means for separating the surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion attack. Another method, cathodic protection, interferes with the natural action of electrochemical cells that are responsible for corrosion. Cathodic protection can be effectively used to resist corrosion of surfaces that are immersed in water or exposed to soil.

Corrosion resistance is an important factor to consider when selecting materials for corrosion control. The materials most resistant to corrosion are those for which corrosion is thermodynamically unfavourable. Some metals have naturally slow reaction kinetics, even though their corrosion is thermodynamically favourable. These include metals such as zinc, magnesium and cadmium. Thus, a material’s own resistance to corrosion or protective methods to arrest corrosion fall under the category of corrosion resistance

Corrosion Terms tagged with ‘Corrosion Prevention Substance’

Corrosion Inhibitor
Liquid Epoxy Coating
Fused Coating
Powder Coating
Epoxy Coating
Wetting Agent
Conversion Coating
Composite Coating
Chemical Conversion Coating
Reactive Coating
Cathodic Coating
Copper Plating
Noble Potential
Noble Metal
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC)
Volatile Corrosion Inhibitor (VCI)
Nickel Plating
Hot-Dip Galvanizing (HDG)
Clear Coating
Hot-Dip Aluminizing
Acid Corrosion Inhibitor
Polyethylene Tape
Bond Coat
Precious Metal
Bituminous Coating
Ion Plating
Cadmium Ion Plating
Cadmium Plating
Immersion Plating
Pack Cementation
Fogged Metal
Pipeline Coating
Corrosion Control
Granodized Metal
Abrasion-Resistant Coating
Top Coating
UV Stabilizers
Rhodium Plating
Inhibitor Coating
Barrier Coating
Wrap-Around Corrosion Protection
Electroless Plating
Mechanical Plating
Zinc Spray Galvanizing
Thermosetting Resin
Antifouling Coating
Polymeric Coating
Self-Healing Coating
Anti-Fouling Paint
Time Between Coats
Sequestering Agent
Active Path Dissolution
Acrylated Rubber
Magnetron Sputtering
Manganese Greensand
Hydraulic Cement
Coating Stress
Gold Plating
Latex-based Paint
Irregular Powder
Electroless Nickel Plating (EN Plating)
316 Grade Stainless Steel
304 Grade Stainless Steel
Chlorinated Rubber
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)
Aluminum Ion Plating
Linear Alkyl Sulfonate (LAS)
Radiation-Cured Coating
Passive Film
Oxide Layer
Fuel Additives
Anti-Foam Additive
Friction Modifier
Bentonite Clay
Coal Coke Breeze
Hydrogen Sulfide Scavenger (H2S Scavenger)
Oxide Film
Sulfamate Nickel Chrome
Nickel Chrome Plating
Chemical Resistance
Epoxy Resin
Pipe Wrap
Marine Coatings
Liquid Roof
Metal Adhesive
Two-Part Epoxy
Surface-Tolerant Epoxy
Corrosion Coating
Scale Inhibitor
Military Coating (MIL-STD)
Oxygen Scavenger
Alloy 255
Equipment Coating
Alloy C22
Alloy B2
Block Filler
Acrylic Latex
Metal Plating
Electrostatic Dissipative Coating (ESD)
Acrylic Resin
Joint Sealant
Zinc Rich Primer
Vinyl Ester Resin
Advanced Hybrid Cycloaliphatic (AHC)
Passivity in Binary Alloys
Waterproof Barrier
Solvent-based Acrylic Sealer
Glazing Compound
Galvanized Coating
Metal Cladding
Methyl Methacrylate (MMA)
Field Coat
Curing Compound
Three-Layer Extruded Polyethylene Coating (3LPE)
Condensation Exposure
Polyurethane Foam
Zinc Carbonate
Ammonium Nitrate
Paraffin Oil
Coal Tar
Beryllium (Be)
Waterborne Coating
Polyester Resin
Austenitic Steel
Alloy G30
Alloy C276
Alloy 2507
Alloy 904
Alloy 400
Alloy 200
Rubber Repair
High Solids Coating
Rust Proofing Weld
Non-ferrous Metal
Corten Steel
Titanium Oxide
Castor Oil
High Solid Silicone
Field Applied Galvanizing
Ferrous Sulfate
Long Oil Alkyd
Leveling Agent
Clay Stabilizer
Polymer Gel
Soluble Corrosion Inhibitor (SCI)
Polyaspartic Coating
Sodium Polysilicate
Micaceous Iron Oxide
Vapor Corrosion Inhibitor
Mortar Coated Steel
Molybdenum Sheet
Lead Silver Alloy
Zinc Ribbon Anode
Cladding Flange
Flexible Membrane
Containment Lining
Resinous Material
Aliphatic Solvent
Penetrating Sealer
Flaking Resistance
Oleoresinous Phenolic Coating
Oil Based Coating
Organic Coating
Organic Zinc Rich Coating
Non-Convertible Coating
Low Solvent Coating
Metal Spray Coating
Nickel Slag Abrasive
Maintenance Coating
Medium Oil Alkyd Resin
Moisture-Curing Coating
Titanium Dioxide (Titanium Oxide)
Cadmium Corrosion
Aluminum Potassium Silicate (Mica)
Anti-Skinning Agent
Anti-Livering Agent
Short Oil Alkyd Resin
Single-Package Coating
Silicone Alkyd Coating
Silicate Paint
Self-curing Coating
Solvent Shock
Silicone Resin
Fiber Reinforced Composite
Zinc Rich Coating
Zinc Shot Blasting
Zinc Silicate Coating
Epoxy Zinc Phosphate
Weld Through Primer
Woven Roving
Barium Chromate
Weld Flux
Water-Soluble Resin
Water-Reducible Coating
Electrolytic Corrosion of Steel
Aluminum Nitrate
Cathodic Disbondment Coating
High Silicon Iron
Stainless Steel Corrosion
316L Stainless Steel
Helium (He)
347 Stainless Steel
Chromium Carbide
Zinc Rich Paint
Zinc Dust
Protective Barrier
Thermoplastic Polyester
Noble Coating
Duplex Stainless Steel
Elastomeric Coating
Silicone Anti-fouling
Vinyl Ester Resin Chemical Resistance
Epoxy Phenol Novolac (EPN)
Amine Cured Epoxy Coating
Barium Hydroxide
Ferritic Stainless Steel
Zinc (Zn)
Anechoic Coating
Girth Weld Coating
Temporary Coating
Two-coat System
Electrostatic Paint
Thin Film Insulation
Tannic Acid
Solvent-borne Coating
Surface Hardener
Tantalum (Ta)
Elastomeric Polyurethane
Protective Coating
Electro galvanizing
Calcium Silicate
Phenolic Alkyd Resin
Phenolic Resin (PF)
Urea Resin (UF)
Epoxy Phenolic Resin
Universal Primer
Immersion Grade Coating
Waterproofing Membrane
Zinc Thermal Spray
Phenolic Modified Alkyd
Urethane Elastomer Coating
Zinc Anode
Phenolic Primer
Vinyl Coating
Thermoset Lining
Surface-Tolerant Coating
Weathering Steel
Aluminum Hydroxide
Mill Coating
Polyurethane Coating
Sizing Agent
Metal Flashing
Rubber Lining
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Nano Coating
Thermodynamic Hydrate Inhibitor (THI)
Thermoset Urethane (TSU)
Stearic Acid
Carbon Black
Aliphatic Acrylic Urethane Coating
Zinc Phosphate
Polyurethane Varnish
Ethylene ChloroTriFluoroEthylene (ECTFE)
Thermoset Coating
Chrome Plating
Epoxy Glass
Inorganic Zinc Primer
Hypereutectoid Alloy
Two-Compartment Coating
Grit Inclusions
Zinc Salts
Sacrificial Pigment
Long Oil Varnish
Liquid Nylon Coating
Polyamide Epoxy
Monoethylene Glycol (MEG)
Synthetic Resin
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
Zinc Hydroxide
Multi-Package Coating
Vinyl Resin
Mass Plating
Epoxy Mastic
Glass Flake Coating
Phosphate Pigment
Penetrating Primer
Phthalic Acid
Cupric Oxide
Cupric Sulfide Conversion Film
Cupreous Sulphide Conversion Film
Beryllium Copper Alloy (BeCu)
Corrosion Resistant Metals
Self-healing Metal Oxide
Dibutyl Sebacate (DBS)
Aromatic Polyurea
Glycol Ether Solvent
Alloy 600
Alloy 718
Alloy 800
Organic Synthesis
Joint Filler
Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate
Cadmium Coating
Alloy 625
Luminous Paint
Impermeable Surface
Inhibitive Pigment
Acrylic Binder
Epoxy Ester
Polyvinyl Acetate
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE)
Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)
Spray-on Lining
Corrosion Inhibiting Dry Film Lubricant
Dibutyl Phthalate
Magnesium Alloy
Carbon Tetrafluoride
Potassium Tripolyphosphate
Magnesium Nitrate
Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic (CBPC)
Zinc Alloy
Aluminum Silicate
Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP)
Hexylene Glycol
Diethylene Glycol (DEG)
Isocyanate Prepolymer
Polymer Flooring
Maleic Anhydride
Thermosetting Fluoropolymer
Furfuryl Alcohol
Inhibitive Primer
Thermoplastic Coating
Diacetone Alcohol
Low-alloy Steel
Ester Solvent
Vanadium (V)
Rhenium (Re)
Triethylenetetramine (TETA)
Epoxy Siloxane
Solventless Coating
Perfluoroalkoxy Alkane (PFA)
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
Methyl Acrylate
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
Thermoplastic Powder
Transition Primer
Thermoplastic Acrylic Emulsion
Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF)
Hydrophilic Coating
Single Component Coating
Thermoplastic Olefin (TPO)
Thermoplastic Elastomer
Multi-Principal Element Alloy (MPEA)
Platinum (Pt)
High-Entropy Alloy (HEA)
Vinyl Alkyd Resin
Thermoplastic Lining
Water-Dispersible Coating
Pipeline Corrosion Inhibitor
Vehicle Solid
Cigarette Wrap
Isostatic Graphite


CRACKING – cracking can be observed on the rubber surface when it is stretched and exposed to the ozone. … Water serves a barrier and protects rubber from the ozone attack. Many cracks formed on the rubber surface at a high strain compared to that of a low strain.

Most any ketone will dissolve rubber. Acetone is probably the safest of the bunch. Another thing that might work is a little bit of gasoline or Windex (ammonia solution). Most rubber is bonded with rubber cement, which usually has a n-heptane solvent to begin with that is evaporated off.

Both ozone and sunlight rapidly attack unprotected polymers which can significantly reduce the service life of a plastic. Particularly polymers with high unsaturation (i.e. rubbers) will suffer from ozone degradation, because the double bonds in unsaturated polymers readily react with ozone.


CRAZING – Crazes with perpendicular fibrils can eventually become a crack if the fibrils break. … If this force overcomes the surface adhesion between the rubber and polymer, debonding will occur, thereby diminishing the toughening effect associated with crazing.

Crazing is caused by the glaze being under too much tension. This tension occurs when the glaze contracts more than the body during cooling. Because glazes are a very thin coating, most will pull apart ar craze under very little tension. Crazing can make food safe glazes unsafe and ruin the look of a piece.


CREEP – It is well known that polymeric materials in general creep with increasing time under a given constant stress and that stress relaxes with increasing time under a given constant strain. Recently, theoretical studies of these phenomena have been made in detail for polyisobutylene, vulcanized natural rubber and polymethylmethacrylate. Both properties for any vulcanized elastomer depend on the molecular structure of the network, the temperature and the amount of original stress or deformation, but it can be deduced from the Tobolsky and Eyring theory of viscoelasticity for polymers that both properties are linearly related to log time. In fact, however, the polymers begin to deviate rapidly from such a linear relationship if they are placed in air at high temperature for a long time, because thermal degradation by oxidation occurs. For elastomers used in electrical machinery and for other industrial uses, for example rubber packaging, diaphragms, or vibration and shock absorbers, it is required that we understand thoroughly the behaviour of both properties at each temperature and each time for individual materials in order to make a proper choice of material suitable in behaviour for each purpose. The author has studied these properties experimentally for natural rubber as well as for several synthetic elastomers and then investigated the relation between thermal life and the temperature employed. This paper describes a few results obtained up to the present.


CROSS LINKING– The formation of covalent bonds which hold portions of several polymer chains together is called cross-linking. Extensive cross-linking results in a random three-dimensional network of interconnected chains.

Cross-link is a bond which links one polymer chain to other. … Cross linking increases the molecular mass of a polymer. Cross-linked polymers are important because they are mechanically strong and resistant to heat, wear and attack by solvents.

Cross-links can be formed by chemical reactions that are initiated by heat, pressure, change in pH, or irradiation. For example, mixing of an unpolymerized or partially polymerized resin with specific chemicals called crosslinking reagents results in a chemical reaction that forms cross-links.


CROSSHEAD EXTRUDER– Crosshead extrusion refers to operating some sort of material or substance, often metal or wire, through a “crosshead” and extruding over a substrate. The metal material, for examples, crosses with the melt flow at the head of the extrusion process, hence the name.

An extruder is simply the machine used to complete the extrusion process. Using a system of barrels and cylinders, the machine heats up the product and propel it through the die to create the desired shape.


CRUDE RUBBER– There are basically two broad categories into which the rubber types can be placed. These are- Natural Rubber and Synthetic Rubber. Sometimes vulcanized rubber is also taken to be a type of rubber.

10 common types of rubber

  1. Natural Rubber
  2. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) …
  3. Butyl (IIR) …
  4. Nitrile (NBR) …
  5. Neoprene® (CR) …
  6. Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) …
  7. Silicone (Q) …
  8. Viton® (FKM)
  9. Polyurethane (AU)
  10. Hydrogenated Nitrile (HNBR)


CRUSH TEST – ASTM D7084 – 18 – This test method is a means of determining the crushing strength of a catalyst in a bed. Techniques to measure the crushing strength of formed catalyst particles is limited to crushing of individual particles, which may not be related to how the catalyst will crush in a reactor or bed. For some catalysts, such as granules, this technique may be the only viable method for obtaining crushing strength. The production of fines in a reactor is not desired because of the potential of bed compaction and the pressure build-up in the reactor.


CRYSTALLINITY – Crystallinity defines the degree of long-range order in a material, and strongly affects its properties. The more crystalline a polymer, the more regularly aligned its chains. … This usually consists of small crystalline regions (crystallites) surrounded by regions of amorphous polymer.

Crystallinity is also affected by extrinsic factors, like crystallization temperature, cooling rate, and in the case of strain-induced crystallization, by the stretch ratio, strain rate, and by the forming process of the polymer film or fiber.

Those with little crystallinity are known as amorphous polymers, for example low density polyethylene or amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (APET), and those with a high degree of crystallinity are known as crystalline polymers, for example high density polyethylene or crystalline polyethylene terephthalate (CPET).



  1. Something (as a drug or medical treatment) that brings about recovery from a disease or illness : remedy a cure for colds.
  2. Recovery or relief from a disease His cure was complete.
  3. Something that solves a problem or improves a bad situation.

No Charcuterie is raw meat, most dry-cured charcuterie is salt-cured and dried. … Since dry-cured charcuterie is not cooked but dried, it is often confused with being raw. Traditional fresh sausages are raw, but cooked when eaten of course – so they are not intended to be served raw.


CURING AGENT – A curing agent can be defined as a substance able to participate in the chemical reaction between the oligomer, pre-polymer and polymer, to achieve the polymerization process and provide the final film. It means that the curing agent is consumed by this reaction.

Amines are classified into aliphatic, alicyclic (Three Bond 2106), and aromatic amines according to the types of hydrocarbons involved, and the all are important curing agents for epoxy resin. Aliphatic amine (Three Bond 2103) is curing agent for epoxy resin ant able to cure at room temperature.

Curing is a process during which a chemical reaction (such as polymerization) or physical action (such as evaporation) takes place, resulting in a harder, tougher or more stable linkage (such as an adhesive bond) or substance (such as concrete).


CYCLE– The whole injection moulding process usual lasts from 2 seconds to 2 minutes.

There are four stages in the cycle. These stages are the clamping, injection, cooling and ejection stages.

Cycle time is the total time required to complete all the stages of the injection moulding cycle. The cycle time is made up of the following stages: Fill time. … The stage of the injection moulding cycle when pressure is applied to the polymer melt to compress the polymer and to force more material into the mould.

• STEP 1: THE MOLD CLOSES. Step 1 of the Injection Molding Process. …
• STEP 2: INJECTION. The heated plastic is injected into the mold. …


Cage – In a mine shaft, the device, similar to an elevator car, that is used for hoisting personnel and materials.


Calorific value – The quantity of heat that can be liberated from one pound of coal or oil measured in BTU’s.


Cannel coal – A massive, non-caking block coal with a fine, even grain and a conchoidal fracture which has a high percentage of hydrogen, burns with a long, yellow flame, and is extremely easy to ignite.


Canopy – A protective covering of a cab on a mining machine.


Cap – A miner’s safety helmet. Also, a highly sensitive, encapsulated explosive that is used to detonate larger but less sensitive explosives.


Cap block – A flat piece of wood inserted between the top of the prop and the roof to provide bearing support.


Car – A railway wagon, especially any of the wagons adapted to carrying coal, ore, and waste underground.


Car-dump – The mechanism for unloading a loaded car.


Carbide bit – More correctly, cemented tungsten carbide. A cutting or drilling bit for rock or coal, made by fusing an insert of molded tungsten carbide to the cutting edge of a steel bit shank.


Carbon Ratio – Percentage of fixed carbon in coal.


Cast – A directed throw; in strip-mining, the overburden is cast from the coal to the previously mined area.


Certified – Describes a person who has passed an examination to do a required job.


Chain conveyor – A conveyor on which the material is moved along solid pans (troughs) by the action of scraper crossbars attached to powered chains.


Chain pillar – The pillar of coal left to protect the gangway or entry and the parallel airways.


Chain runner – A workman who fastens and unfastens, as required, haulage cables to trips, and whose signals direct the haulage engineer operator to stop the trip. The chain runner underground functions much as a guard brakeman on a railway.


Chamber – An excavation from which coal is taken, known also as a bord or room (in Great Britain, it is known as breast).


Checkweighman – The miners representative, chosen by ballot, who checks the weight of coal recovered in the miner’s favour, when the coal boxes filled by the miners underground are weighed at the bank head.


Check curtain – Sheet of brattice cloth hung across an airway to control the passage of the air current.


Chock – Chuck, pack – a hardwood block, two or more feet long, six inches or more square, used as a temporary roof support, normally in longwall operations and withdrawn as the wall advances or retreats. In some longwall operations, chocks are left to ease pressure of the crushed roof and prevent it spreading to the coal face.


Choke Damp – A loosely used term for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.


Clay vein – A body of clay-like material that fills a void in a coal bed.


Cleat or Cleavage – The term applied to the natural forces, or planes of division, causing coal to break up into more or less rectangular blocks.


Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 – A comprehensive set of amendments to the federal law governing the nation’s air quality. The Clean Air Act was originally passed in 1970 to address significant air pollution problems in our cities. The 1990 amendments broadened and strengthened the original law to address specific problems such as acid deposition, urban smog, hazardous air pollutants and stratospheric ozone depletion.


Clean Coal Technologies – A number of innovative, new technologies designed to use coal in a more efficient and cost-effective manner while enhancing environmental protection. Several promising technologies include: fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, limestone injection multi-stage burner, enhanced flue gas desulfurization (or “scrubbing”), coal liquefaction and coal gasification.


Coal – A solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified combustible carbonaceous rock, formed by partial to complete decomposition of vegetation; varies in color from dark brown to black; not fusible without decomposition and very insoluble.


Coal Analysis – The determination by chemical methods of the amounts of various components of coal.


Coal Ash – Non-combustible material in coal.


Coal Bank – Exposed seam of coal. Coal Basin – A coal field with a synclinal basin structure.


Coal Bump – Sudden outbursts of coal and rock that occur when stresses in a coal pillar, left for support in underground workings, cause the pillar to rupture without warning, sending coal and rock flying with explosive force.


Coal Caking – Coal that softens and binds together when heated and produces a hard grey cellular coke.


Coal Carbonization – The heat treatment of coal in the absence of air at low temperatures (450 to 700 degrees C) or high temperatures (900 to 1200 degrees C). Coal Classification – The grouping of coals according to a particular property such as degree of metamorphism (Rank), constituent plant materials (Type), or degree of impurity (Grade). Also, the grouping of coals according to percentage of volatile matter, coal caking properties and coking properties.


Coal dust – Particles of coal that can pass a No. 20 sieve.


Coal Field – The coal deposit or bed, in total, in a given geographic locality.


Coal Gasification – – Conversion of coal to gaseous fuel without leaving a combustible residue.


Coal Grade – A coal classification based on the degree of impurity, (i.e. quantity of inorganic material or ash left after burning).


Coal Hydrogeneration or Liquefaction – The conversion of coal into liquid hydrocarbons and related compounds by treating an oily paste of bituminous coal with hydrogen gas at elevated temperatures and pressures.


Coal Measures – A succession of coal seams in varying thickness and separated by other sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and/or shale.


Coal Measures – As for coal field.


Coal mine – An area of land and all structures, facilities, machinery, tools, equipment, shafts, slopes, tunnels, excavations, and other property, real or personal, placed upon, under, or above the surface of such land by any person, used in extracting coal from its natural deposits in the earth by any means or method, and the work of preparing the coal so extracted, including coal preparation facilities. British term is “colliery”.


Coal Rank – A coal classification based on degree of metamorphism.


Coal reserves – Measured tonnages of coal that have been calculated to occur in a coal seam within a particular property.


Coal Seam or Bed – A stratum (layer) of coal.


Coke – A combustible material consisting of the fused coal ash and fixed carbon of bituminous coal, produced by driving off the coal’s volatile matter.


Coking Coal – A bituminous coal containing 80-90% carbon and that is suitable for the production of coke.


Coal washing – The process of separating undesirable materials from coal based on differences in densities. Pyritic sulphur, or sulphur combined with iron, is heavier and sinks in water; coal is lighter and floats.


Coke – A hard, dry carbon substance produced by heating coal to a very high temperature in the absence of air.


Collar – The term applied to the timbering or concrete around the mouth or top of a shaft. The beginning point of a shaft or drill hole at the surface.


Collier – An underground workman in a coal mine – a coal transporting ship.


Colliery – A coal mine inclusive of surface, plant and underground workings.


Column flotation – A precombustion coal cleaning technology in which coal particles attach to air bubbles rising in a vertical column. The coal is then removed at the top of the column.


Comminution – The breaking, crushing, or grinding of coal, ore, or rock.


Compaction – A decrease in the volume of sediment as a result of compressive stress, usually resulting from continued deposits above, but also from drying and other causes.


Competent rock – Rock which, because of its physical and geological characteristics, is capable of sustaining openings without any structural support except pillars and walls left during mining (stalls, light props, and roof bolts are not considered structural support).


Conglomerate – The rock strata lying beneath a coal measure.


Contact – The place or surface where two different kinds of rocks meet. Applies to sedimentary rocks, as the contact between a limestone and a sandstone, for example, and to metamorphic rocks; and it is especially applicable between igneous intrusions and their walls.


Continuous miner – A machine that constantly extracts coal while it loads it. This is to be distinguished from a conventional, or cyclic, unit which must stop the extraction process in order for loading to commence.


Contour – An imaginary line that connects all points on a surface having the same elevation.


Conventional mining – The first fully-mechanized underground mining method involving the insertion of explosives in a coal seam, the blasting of the seam, and the removal of the coal onto a conveyor or shuttle car by a loading machine.


Conveyor – An apparatus for moving material from one point to another in a continuous fashion. This is accomplished with an endless (that is, looped) procession of hooks, buckets, wide rubber belt, etc.


Core sample – A cylinder sample generally 1-5″ in diameter drilled out of an area to determine the geologic and chemical analysis of the overburden and coal.


Cover – The overburden of any deposit.


Creep – The forcing of pillars into soft bottom by the weight of a strong roof. In surface mining, a very slow movement of slopes downhill.


Crib – A roof support of prop timbers or ties, laid in alternate cross-layers, log-cabin style. It may or may not be filled with debris. Also may be called a chock or cog.


Cribbing – The construction of cribs or timbers laid at right angles to each other, sometimes filled with earth, as a roof support or as a support for machinery.


Crossheading – A narrow opening for ventilation driven through coal or rock separating two passages.


Crop coal – Coal at the outcrop of the seam. It is usually considered of inferior quality due to partial oxidation, although this is not always the case.


Crossbar – The horizontal member of a roof timber set supported by props located either on roadways or at the face.


Crosscut – A passageway driven between the entry and its parallel air course or air courses for ventilation purposes. Also, a tunnel driven from one seam to another through or across the intervening measures; sometimes called “crosscut tunnel”, or “breakthrough”. In vein mining, an entry perpendicular to the vein.


Cross entry – An entry running at an angle with the main entry.


Crusher – A machine for crushing rock or other materials. Among the various types of crushers are the ball mill, gyratory crusher, Handsel mill, hammer mill, jaw crusher, rod mill, rolls, stamp mill, and tube mill.


Cuddy – A weighted tram, to counterbalance a loaded tub and pull up the empty tub.


Cut – A groove excavated in the coal face in preparation for blasting.


Cutter; Cutting machine – A machine, usually used in coal, that will cut a 10- to 15-cm slot. The slot allows room for expansion of the broken coal. Also applies to the man who operates the machine and to workers engaged in the cutting of coal by prick or drill.


Cycle mining – A system of mining in more than one working place at a time, that is, a miner takes a lift from the face and moves to another face while permanent roof support is established in the previous working face.

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