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Glossary of Terms

Butadiene rubber – synthetic rubber widely employed in tire treads for trucks and automobiles. It consists of polybutadiene, an elastomer (elastic polymer) built up by chemically linking multiple molecules of butadiene to form giant molecules, or polymers.
The polymer is noted for its high resistance to abrasion, low heat buildup, and resistance to cracking.


BACK RINDING – Superfine powdered rubber can be manufactured efficiently using a cryogenic process. Liquid nitrogen is employed to cool the feed granules below their glass transition temperature before they are pulverized with counter-rotating pin mills. The fineness and throughput are determined by the impact speed from the pin mill and nitrogen metering unit as shown below. A complex product and nitrogen feeder in combination with specially designed screw cooler are of high importance for the efficiency of the system.

Other prerequisites are the right choice of screening technology and the use of suitable screening aids. The amount of coarse material to be returned for final grinding can thus be minimized, helping to increase the grinding performance and reduce the LN2 consumption. Selection of the construction materials plays a decisive role not only because of the abrasive fillers contained in the product, but also because of the extremely low temperature. We have been delivering cryogenic grinding systems with continually optimized process and control technology for many decades now.


BANBURY – Banbury’s main industries are motorsport, car components, electrical goods, plastics, food processing, and printing. Banbury is home to the world’s largest coffee-processing facility (Jacobs Douwe Egberts), built in 1964. The town is famed for Banbury cakes – similar to Eccles cakes but oval in shape.


BATCH – Batch production enables items to be created stage by stage in bulk (‘a batch’). … Batch production is commonly used in food production. For example each morning a bakery will produce batches of the following products one after another: white bread loaves.


BEAD – Steel wire is used in the tire belts and beads, and the plies for truck tires. The belts under the tread serve to stiffen the tire casing and improve wear performance and tire handling. The bead wire anchors the tire and locks it onto the wheel.

Beading wire is a stringing material made up of numerous, thin steel wires that are woven or wound together. It’s often coated with a thin layer of nylon that helps protect the beading wire from wear and deterioration and gives it a softer, more supple feel.


BENCH MARK – A benchmark is a point of reference by which something can be measured. In surveying, a “bench mark” (two words) is a post or other permanent mark established at a known elevation that is used as the basis for measuring the elevation of other topographical points.

In order to create the benchmark scores, the survey items associated with each benchmark are first rescaled so that all items are on the same scale (0 to 1). Next, the benchmark scores are computed by averaging the scores of the related survey items.


BLACK – Black is associated with power, fear, mystery, strength, authority, elegance, formality, death, evil, and aggression, authority, rebellion, and sophistication. Black is required for all other colours to have depth and variation of hue. The black colour is the absence of colour.

Black is the absence of light. … Some consider white to be a colour, because white light comprises all hues on the visible light spectrum. And many do consider black to be a colour, because you combine other pigments to create it on paper. But in a technical sense, black and white are not colours, they’re shades.


BLANK – Some common synonyms of blank are empty, vacant, vacuous, and void.


BLEEDING – Surface exudation of a liquid or solid material from a vulcanized rubber part due to a partial or complete incompatibility (insolubility).


BLISTER – Gas blisters are likely to form mainly in castings that are produced using mould materials, regardless of the actual material used. In most cases it is gasses caused by or related to the moulding material that are entrapped within the casting material and that cannot rise to the top within the solidification time.


BLOOM– Rubber Bloom is a common, superficial phenomenon that does not affect the functionality of rubber or its ability to seal. Bloom refers to formation of a dust or film on the surface of rubber compounds. The particulates that create bloom are recrystallized rubber compounds that are insoluble or unable to stay within the rubber as the material cools down to room temperature after vulcanization. Many rubber compounding materials have limited compatibility with the elastomer in use, which is why bloom is a common occurrence.

Bloom can be either solid or liquid compounding materials. These compounds migrate to the surface of the rubber component and appear as Rubber Bloom. Bloom includes both dry bloom and wet bloom, which is also known as exudation, bleeding, or oily bloom.

While it may cause the rubber to look dirty or unattractive, Rubber Bloom is common and is not considered defective as it does not inhibit proper function of the rubber. In some cases, bloom can be used intentionally to help protect the component as a modified bloom.


BLOW – The blow moulding process allows an automated and effective production of complex hollow parts made of solid silicone rubber in one step. The use of expensive core techniques, which lead to comparatively high reject rates in injection moulding, is not necessary.


BLOWING AGENT– Blowing Agent is a chemical added to rubbers that generates inert gases on heating, causing the resin to assume a cellular structure. It is also known as foaming agent. Our company specialises in the production and distribution of highly acclaimed Rubber Blowing Agent that is also reckoned as Dinitroso Pentamethylene Tetramine. It has a number of applications in Rubber and Plastic industry. It is widely used in rubber processing to produce sponges and expanded rubber. MICROFOAM DNPT is used in Footwear Industry.


BOND – Cyanoacrylate instant adhesive is generally your best bet for rubber bonding; epoxies are not usually recommended – rubber is easily peeled off. Cyanoacrylate adhesive cures in seconds so you can find out pretty quickly whether it is going to work or not!


BONDING AGENT-One who agrees and is authorized to act on behalf of another, a principal, to legally bind an individual in particular business transactions with third parties pursuant to an agency relationship.

Also known as a “bonderizer” bonding agents (spelled dentin bonding agents in American English) are resin materials used to make a dental composite filling material adhere to both dentin and enamel. Bonding agents are often methacrylates with some volatile carrier and solvent like acetone.


BOOT – When dirt, grit, metal chips, scale, and other substances impinge on exposed hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder rods, these contaminants not only shorten the life of the seals, but often can damage the rods themselves. For almost all applications where contaminant-caused wear is a problem, installing the proper protective rod boot can make a big difference in rod and seal life. One manufacturer of automated welding equipment — which was exposed constantly to hot weld spatter — noticed a decline in service problems and achieved longer service life after the hydraulic cylinders were fitted with bellows-type boots fabricated from Hypalon-coated polyester material.


BRITTLE POINT –Well-vulcanized rubber does not crystallize, but loses its ability to retract when stretched. Crude or elastic rubber, however, loses elasticity completely if cooled to 70-80° F. … This transition to brittleness occurs at a sharply defined temperature which differs for various natural and synthetic rubbers.

Rubber is not ductile. Ductility is the ability of a material to undergo permanent deformation through elongation or bending without fracturing. However, rubber has a ‘shelf life’ of between 3 and 5 years depending on how it is stored. Rubber becomes brittle as it ages.


BULK DENSITY – Bulk density is the weight of soil in a given volume. Soils with a bulk density higher than 1.6 g/cm3 tend to restrict root growth. Bulk density increases with compaction and tends to increase with depth. Sandy soils are more prone to high bulk density.

Bulk density of the soil is also important from the point of view of plant growth especially root penetration. A shallow plant root and poor plant growth resulting from compacted and high bulk density soils will influence crop yield and reduce vegetative cover available to protect soil from erosion.


BUMPING– Rubber molding creates molded rubber parts by pressing a block of rubber into a rubber molding metal cavity. The rubber is then exposed to heat, activating a chemical reaction. … The three most common methods in the rubber molding process are rubber injection molding, compression molding, and transfer molding.

It finds application for prototypes and low and medium volume production. Basically, the process consists of compressing a piece of uncured rubber between heated mould plates in a hydraulic press. The heat and pressure moulds the rubber to the shape of the cavity and vulcanisation occurs after a prescribed time.


BUNA-N – Buna-N. – Buna-N monomers are 1,3-butadiene and acrylonitrile. – It is formed by polymerization of 1,3-butadiene and acrylonitrile in the presence of sodium. – It is also called Nitrile-Butadiene-Rubber. It is a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile.

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) or Nitrile rubber is one of the most popular compounds for automotive applications. It also is well known as Buna-N. This name came from one of the first base polymers patented in 1934, therefore people commonly use this name for all classes for Nitrile to this day.


BUNA-S – Buna-S is a synthetic rubber. The monomers used for it is butadiene and styrene. It is used for making automobiles tyres, floortiles, footwear components, cable insulation, etc. Buna – N is a copolymer of 1, 3−butadiene and acrylonitrile. … It is obtained by polymerization of 1,3-butadiene & acrylonitrile in the presence of sodium . It is used for making oil seels,manufacturing of tank linings,protective gloves etc. Buna − S. Buna – S is a copolymer of 1, 3−butadiene and styrene.


BUTADIENE – Butadiene is used primarily as a chemical intermediate and as a monomer in the manufacture of polymers such as synthetic rubbers or elastomers. Polymers made from butadiene are used in making tires, carpet backing, plastic gloves, wetsuits, rubber hoses, and gaskets.

1,3-butadiene is produced through the processing of petroleum and is mainly used in the production of synthetic rubber, but is also found in smaller amounts in plastics and fuel.


BUTT SPLICE – A joint made before or after vulcanization in a rubber part by placing the two pieces to be joined edge to edge. BUTYL RUBBER – ASTM designation IIR, for isobutylene-isoprene rubber. Butyl rubber is the common name for such materials.


BUTYL RUBBER – Butyl rubber is a synthetic elastomer made by combining isobutylene and isoprene. It was the first rubber to be synthesized. It has good shock absorption characteristics and low moisture and gas permeability and is used in many commercial applications.

Butyl rubber is one of the most robust elastomers when subjected to chemical warfare agents and decontamination materials. It is a harder and less porous material than other elastomers, such as natural rubber or silicone, but still has enough elasticity to form an airtight seal.

Butyl Rubber Polymers are solid, stable polymers that are not hazardous and highly impermeable to air and water relative to other rubber polymers. If heated above the flash point, they may burn or decompose to flammable hydrocarbons (fire situations).

Butyl rubber (IIR), also called isobutylene-isoprene rubber, a synthetic rubber produced by copolymerizing isobutylene with small amounts of isoprene.


Back – The roof or upper part in any underground mining cavity.


Backfill – Mine waste or rock used to support the roof after coal removal.


Bank and Bankhead – The building at the entrance to a mine into which the coal boxes are drawn and dumped into the mine screens, and from there to railway. The term is loosely described as all the surface buildings.


Balance – An inclined passage running up at right angles from a main level, into the coal seam, normally tracked with boxes drawn up by balance and lowered gravity. The term gradually means a pair of passages, connected at the top, one of which is upcast and the other is downcast for ventilation.


Barren – Said of rock or vein material containing no minerals of value, and of strata without coal, or containing coal in seams too thin to be workable.


Barrier – The coal left at a mine or mine working.


Barricading – Enclosing part of a mine to prevent inflow of noxious gasses from a mine fire or an explosion.


Barrier – Something that bars or keeps out. Barrier pillars are solid blocks of coal left between two mines or sections of a mine to prevent accidents due to inrushes of water, gas, or from explosions or a mine fire.


Bearing In – Cutting a horizontal groove at the bottom or side of the coal face.


Beam – A bar or straight girder used to support a span of roof between two support props or walls.


Beam building – The creation of a strong, inflexible beam by bolting or otherwise fastening together several weaker layers. In coal mining this is the intended basis for roof bolting.


Bearing – A surveying term used to designate direction. The bearing of a line is the acute horizontal angle between the meridian and the line. The meridian is an established line of reference. Azimuths are angles measured clockwise from any meridian.


Bearing plate – A plate used to distribute a given load. In roof bolting, the plate used between the bolt head and the roof.


Bed – A separate stratum of coal or other natural deposit such as clay, rock or shale.


Belt conveyor – A looped belt on which coal or other materials can be carried and which is generally constructed of flame-resistant material or of reinforced rubber or rubber-like substance.


Belt idler – A roller, usually of cylindrical shape, which is supported on a frame and which, in turn, supports or guides a conveyor belt. Idlers are not powered but turn by contact with the moving belt.


Belt take-up – A belt pulley, generally under a conveyor belt and inby the drive pulley, kept under strong tension parallel to the belt line. Its purpose is to automatically compensate for any slack in the belting created by start-up, etc.


Bench – A horizontal section of coal seam included between parting of coal or shale. Bituminous Coal – A coal that contains 15% to 20% volatile matter. It is dark brown to black in colour and burns with a smoky flame. It is intermediate between sub-bituminous and semi-bituminous coal.


Beneficiation – The treatment of mined material, making it more concentrated or richer.


Berm – A pile or mound of material capable of restraining a vehicle.


Binder – A streak of impurity in a coal seam.


Bit – The hardened and strengthened device at the end of a drill rod that transmits the energy of breakage to the rock. The size of the bit determines the size of the hole. A bit may be either detachable from or integral with its supporting drill rod.


Bituminous coal – A middle rank coal (between subbituminous and anthracite) formed by additional pressure and heat on lignite. Usually has a high Btu value and may be referred to as “soft coal.”


Black damp – A term generally applied to carbon dioxide. Strictly speaking, it is a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. It is also applied to an atmosphere depleted of oxygen, rather than having an excess of carbon dioxide.


Blasting agent – Any material consisting of a mixture of a fuel and an oxidizer.


Blasting cap – A detonator containing a charge of detonating compound, which is ignited by electric current or the spark of a fuse. Used for detonating explosives.


Blasting circuit – Electric circuits used to fire electric detonators or to ignite an igniter cord by means of an electric starter.


Bleeder or bleeder entries – Special air courses developed and maintained as part of the mine ventilation system and designed to continuously move air-methane mixtures emitted by the gob or at the active face away from the active workings and into mine-return air courses. Alt: Exhaust ventilation lateral.


Blower – Gas discharged under pressure from a vein in a coal seam.


Boghead Coal – A sapropelic coal resembling cannel coal in its physical properties but containing algae, not spores. It rarely occurs in a pure state but rather in forms transitional to cannel coal. A source of both oil and gas.
Bolt torque – The turning force in foot-pounds applied to a roof bolt to achieve an installed tension.


Boom – A wooden support of the mine roof, like a building rafter, that is set horizontally.


Bootleg Coal – The mining and/or selling of coal from an area not owned by the miner or without the owner’s permission.


Bord – A chamber excavated in coal, off a balance. In some coal fields, a bord is called a room.


Bore Hole – A hole of small diameter drilled or bored to explore the strata beneath, above, beside or ahead.


Bottom – Floor or underlying surface of an underground excavation.


Boss – Any member of the managerial ranks who is directly in charge of miners (e.g., “shift-boss,” “face-boss,” “fire-boss,” etc.).


Bore Hole – A hole of small diameter drilled or bored to explore the strata beneath, above, beside or ahead.


Box-type magazine – A small, portable magazine used to store limited quantities of explosives or detonators for short periods of time at locations in the mine which are convenient to the blasting sites at which they will be used.


Brattice or brattice cloth – Fire-resistant fabric or plastic partition used in a mine passage to confine the air and force it into the working place. Also termed “line brattice,” “line canvas,” or “line curtain.”


Break line – The line that roughly follows the rear edges of coal pillars that are being mined. The line along which the roof of a coal mine is expected to break.


Breakthrough – A passage for ventilation that is cut through the pillars between rooms.


Bridge carrier – A rubber-tire-mounted mobile conveyor, about 10 meters long, used as an intermediate unit to create a system of articulated conveyors between a mining machine and a room or entry conveyor.


Bridge conveyor – A short conveyor hung from the boom of mining or lading machine or haulage system with the other end attached to a receiving bin that dollies along a frame supported by the room or entry conveyor, tailpiece. Thus, as the machine boom moves, the bridge conveyor keeps it in constant connection with the tailpiece.


British Thermal Unit (B.T.U.) – Heat needed to raise one pound of water by one degree F (252 calories).


Brow – A low place in the roof of a mine, giving insufficient headroom.


Brusher – A workman (always an experienced miner) who keeps the roof, sides and pavement of a passage in good repair.


Brushing – Digging up the bottom or taking down the top to give more headroom in roadways.


Btu – British thermal unit. A measure of the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.


Bug dust – The fine particles of coal or other material resulting form the boring or cutting of the coal face by drill or machine.


Bump (or burst) – A violent dislocation of the mine workings which is attributed to severe stresses in the rock surrounding the workings.


Butt cleat – A short, poorly defined vertical cleavage plane in a coal seam, usually at right angles to the long face cleat.


Butt entry – A coal mining term that has different meanings in different locations. It can be synonymous with panel entry, submain entry, or in its older sense it refers to an entry that is “butt” onto the coal cleavage (that is, at right angles to the face).


Butty – A miner’s working partner – also known as “buddy”.


Bullwheel – A wheel, operating freely, around which passes the rope in a balance – gravity – power system. Most are equipped with brakes.

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