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Glossary of Terms

I.D. OR ID- The inside diameter (ID) of a hollow circular object, like a pipe, is a measurement of the distance of a straight line from one point on the inner wall of the object, through its center, to an opposite point also on the inside. … Inside diameter is also known as inner diameter or internal diameter.

Inner diameter can be measured by inserting a plug type measuring head with air blow noz- zles on both sides. Taper can be measured by moving the head in the axial direction. The average inner diameter can be measured by placing three or more jets at equiangular locations.

Inner diameter can be measured by inserting a plug type measuring head with air blow noz- zles on both sides. Taper can be measured by moving the head in the axial direction. The average inner diameter can be measured by placing three or more jets at equiangular locations.


IIR – Butyl rubber is a synthetic elastomer made by combining isobutylene and isoprene. It was the first rubber to be synthesized. It has good shock absorption characteristics and low moisture and gas permeability and is used in many commercial applications.

Butyl rubber is a synthetic polymer, a copolymer of isobutylene with isoprene. The key advantages butyl rubber offers is superlative air-barrier performance with superior flex properties. Butyl Rubber abbreviated as IIR (Isobutylene-Isoprene copolymer) is extensively used to manufacture tire’s Inner Tube. It offers matchless ozone & weather resistance along with heat stability.


IMPACT STRENGTH – Impact strength – also called impact toughness – is the amount of energy that a material can withstand when the said load is suddenly applied to it. It may also be defined as the threshold of force per unit area before the material undergoes fracture.

Impact strength is calculated by dividing impact energy in J (or ft-lb) by the thickness of the specimen. The test result is typically the average of 5 specimens. ISO impact strength is expressed in kJ/m2. Impact strength is calculated by dividing impact energy in J by the area under the notch.

Important extrinsic factors are temperature, impact speed, shape and weight of the striker, specimen geometry, and notch size and shape. A high molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution generally improves impact resistance, whereas increased crystallinity and voids lower impact resistance.


IMPREGNATE – transitive verb. 1a : to cause to be filled, imbued, permeated, or saturated impregnate wood with varnish. b : to permeate thoroughly. 2 : to make pregnant : fertilize. impregnate.

D06B1/04 Applying liquids, gases or vapours onto textile materials to effect treatment, e.g. washing, dyeing, bleaching, sizing or impregnating by pouring or allowing to flow on to the surface of the textile material.

Some common synonyms of impregnate are drench, saturate, soak, and steep. While all these words mean “to permeate or be permeated with a liquid,” impregnate implies a thorough interpenetration of one thing by another.


INCOMPATIBILITY– Incompatibility is defined as a change resulting and an undesirable product is formed, which may affect the safety, efficacy, appearance and stability of the pharmaceutical product. It is of three types. It includes physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatibilities.


INERT – Reinforcement material must not be covered with mud, oil, ice, or any other element that will decrease the reinforcement’s ability to bond. With the exception of prestressing steel, steel reinforcement with rust or mill scale or both can be determined to be satisfactory for use.

A particle has no long dimension. Particle composites consist of particles of one material dispersed in a matrix of a second material. Particles are most often used to extend the strength or other properties of inexpensive materials by the addition of other materials. …

Multidirectional reinforcements are produced by weaving, knitting, stitching or braiding continuous fibers into a fabric from twisted and plied yarn. Fabrics can be manufactured utilizing almost any reinforcing fiber. The most common fabrics are constructed with fiberglass, carbon or aramid.


INHIBITOR – Inhibitors. Enzyme inhibitors are compounds which modify the catalytic properties of the enzyme and, therefore, slow down the reaction rate, or in some cases, even stop the catalysis. Such inhibitors work by blocking or distorting the active site.

The Best Central Heating Inhibitor

  • Fernox F1.
  • MagnaClean MC1.
  • Sentinel X100.

Inhibitor does break down over time, and should be checked every year, and replaced every time the system is drained. … You cannot ever add too much inhibitor, so the more the better.


INJECTION MOLDING – The injection molding process requires the use of an injection molding machine, raw plastic material, and a mold. The plastic is melted in the injection molding machine and then injected into the mold, where it cools and solidifies into the final part.

Injection molding is a process in which a thermoplastic polymer is heated above its melting point, resulting in the conversion of the solid polymer to a molten fluid with a reasonably low viscosity.

Types of Molding Processes

  • Casting. Casting is a basic molding process as it requires the least amount of complex technology. …
  • Injection Molding. Injection molding is used for creating high-quality three-dimensional objects, that can be commercially reproduced. …
  • Blow Molding. …
  • Compression Molding. …
  • Rotational Molding.


INORGANIC CHEMICALS – The term “inorganic” refers broadly to compounds that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen. While materials like minerals and metals fit tidily into this definition, there are also plenty of inorganic compounds in which a metalloid or metal is bonded with carbon. These are known as organometallic compounds.

Inorganic compounds comprise most of the Earth’s crust, although the compositions of the deep mantle remain active areas of investigation. Some simple compounds that contain carbon are often considered inorganic.


INSERT – Insert molding is a similar process but instead uses a preformed part—often metal—that is loaded into a mold where it is then overmolded with a thermoplastic resin to create a final component. When the run is complete, parts are boxed and shipped shortly thereafter.

Insert molding is the process of molding thermoplastic material around a preformed component (an insert) to create a finished part that incorporates multiple materials. … The inserts are placed into the mold and thermoplastic is injected into the mold to form the part.


INTERNAL MIXER – Internal mixers are general purpose machines able to mix a wide range of rubber compounds without any change to the machine geometry needed.

Introduction. Rubber mixing process (RMP) is one of the determinations of physical and chemical properties of vulcanized rubber. RMP starts from rubber mastication and then followed by rubber chemicals and/or filler mixing into rubber.

Banbury Mixer also named rubber banbury mixerr is mainly used in rubber mixing and plastic refining. The mixer is a machine with a pair of rotors with a specific shape and a relative rotation, which plasticizes and blends the polymer materials in a closed state with adjustable temperature and pressure.


ISOPRENE – Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2=C(CH3)−CH=CH2. In its pure form it is a colorless volatile liquid. Isoprene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon. It is produced by many plants and animals (including humans) and its polymers are the main component of natural rubber.

It is also used in adhesives, paints and coatings. Isoprene is extremely flammable and highly reactive in its liquid and vapour forms. This means that it can burn explosively and can also spontaneously ‘polymerise’.

Naturally isoprene is found in poplars, oaks, eucalyptus, and some leguminous plants.

The isoprene rule dictates how isoprene units are joined together in a head to tail configuration. The tail of the first molecule joins the head of the second molecule to form a larger unit. The simplest example is myrcene. … Like myrcene, limonene is formed of two isoprene units.


IZOD IMPACT TEST– The Izod impact strength test is an ASTM standard method of determining the impact resistance of materials. A pivoting arm is raised to a specific height (constant potential energy) and then released. The arm swings down hitting a notched sample, breaking the specimen.

Notched Izod Impact is a single point test that measures a materials resistance to impact from a swinging pendulum. Izod impact is defined as the kinetic energy needed to initiate fracture and continue the fracture until the specimen is broken.

How the Izod Impact Test Works. The Izod impact test fixes one end of a notched specimen in a cantilever position by means of a vice. A striker on the arm of a pendulum or similar energy carrier then strikes the specimen. The energy absorbed by the specimen in the breaking process is known as the breaking energy.


In bye – A term relative to position, meaning nearer to the coal face, and opposite to the term out bye. Sometimes it is used on the surface to mean that an individual is in the mine.


Incline – Any entry to a mine that is not vertical (shaft) or horizontal (adit). Often incline is reserved for those entries that are too steep for a belt conveyor (+17 degrees -18 degrees), in which case a hoist and guide rails are employed. A belt conveyor incline is termed a slope. Alt: Secondary inclined opening, driven upward to connect levels, sometimes on the dip of a deposit; also called “inclined shaft”.


Incompetent – Applied to strata, a formation, a rock, or a rock structure not combining sufficient firmness and flexibility to transmit a thrust and to lift a load by bending.


Indicated coal resources – Coal for which estimates of the rank, quality, and quantity have been computed partly from sample analyses and measurements and partly from reasonable geologic projections. The points of observation are ½ to 1 ½ miles apart. Indicated coal is projected to extend as an ½ mile wide belt that lies more than ¼ mile from the outcrop or points of observation or measurement.


Induration – The process of hardening of sediments through cementation, pressure, heat, or other cause.


Inferred coal resources – Coal in unexplored extensions of the demonstrated resources for which estimates of the quality and size are based on geologic evidence and projection. Quantitative estimates are based largely on broad knowledge of the geologic character of the deposit and for which there are few, if any, samples or measurements. The estimates are based on an assumed continuity or repletion of which there is geologic evidence; this evidence may include comparison with deposits of similar type. Bodies that are completely concealed may be included if there is specific geologic evidence of their presence. The points of observation are 1 ½ to 6 miles apart.


In situ – In the natural or original position. Applied to a rock, soil, or fossil when occurring in the situation in which it was originally formed or deposited.


Intake – The passage through which fresh air is drawn or forced into a mine or to a section of a mine.


Intermediate section – A term used in belt and chain conveyor network to designate a section of the conveyor frame occupying a position between the head and foot sections.


Immediate roof – The roof strata immediately above the coalbed, requiring support during the excavation of coal.


Intake – A level carrying air to the coal face. The intake for one coal face may be the return for another.


Isopach – A line, on a map, drawn through points of equal thickness of a designated unit. Synonym for isopachous line; isopachyte.

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